On 31st January 2019 Enterprise Singapore published a Technical Reference for Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), known as TR 68.
This reference is intended to support the development of vehicle deployments which do not require a human operator on-board. Key to this is the development of level 4/5 capable Automated Driving Systems.
TR 68 is the result of an industry-led yearlong effort administered by the Singapore Standards Council’s (SSC’s) Manufacturing Standards Committee. Overseen by the ‘Technical Committee on Automotive’ appointed by SSC, four working groups formed of representatives from the AV industry, research institutions, institutes of higher learning and government agencies each developed a part of the TR.
The TR is expected to accelerate the industry’s efforts to develop AV technology in Singapore.
What’s in TR68
With the exception of
Here is a short summary of what each part of TR 68 discusses:
Part 1: Basic Behaviour
Intended as a reference for appropriate automated conduct the Dynamic Driving Task for vehicles. Three key areas are covered:
- Referencing the existing rules applicable for automated driving and presenting interpreted rulesets for selected driving tasks and manoeuvres
- Directives and principles for the application of rules to an automated driving policy
- A process for the continuous improvement of automated driving rules and driving policy
Included as an Annex is a list of applicable rules for AVs. This is based on Singapore’s Basic theory of driving (Tenth Edition) & Final theory of driving (Ninth Edition).
Part 2: Safety
Intended to provide safety guidelines for Autonomous Vehicles deployed on public roads in two key areas:
- Design and production quality
- Safe operation in the context of specific applications in Singapore
This includes system-level safety guidelines in the following areas:
- Vehicle Functional and Operational Safety requirements
- System Safety applicability for the whole Operation Design Domain
- Competencies and quality management for vehicle developer, system integrator and system operator
- Appropriate safety goals for guiding safety assurance
Included as an Annex are use cases for Singapore.
Several automotive, industrial, and quality management standards are referenced including ISO 26262, and ISO21448.
Part 3: Cybersecurity principles and assessment
Intended to provide guidelines for an enhanced cybersecurity framework for Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) deployed on public roads. Two tiers of cybersecurity assurance are set out:
- Cybersecurity principles are presented for AV Developers/Operators to manage cybersecurity for the full lifecycle of the AV, including design, development, operations, maintenance, and decommissioning. Intended to ensure a secure-by-design system and secure operations which are verified by a full internal cybersecurity assessment.
- A framework for the independent cybersecurity assessment of AV systems is presented with the purpose of providing a recommended process for discovering overlooked cyber weaknesses, testing the preparedness of the system against cyber threats.
The independent assessment framework includes three main parts:
- System review
- Threat risk analysis
- Cybersecurity Testing of the vehicle in three areas
- Vulnerability Analysis
- Fuzz Testing
- Attack Simulation
An example AV Attack Surfaces & Threat identification, and threat scenario assessment is included as an Annex.
Several automotive, and cybersecurity standards are referenced including the NIST SP 800 series and ISO 21434(draft).
Part 4: Vehicular data types and formats
Intended to provide guidelines on standardised services and data exchange formats. This aims to facilitate efficiency and interoperability in communication processes between multiple parties in the AV ecosystem. This includes:
- Identification of possible use cases where data exchange and/or transfer may be necessary
- Defines and describes the datasets required
- Recommends guidance on vehicular data types and formats that all players in the AV ecosystem should use
The references include communications, V2X and ITS related standards, including; SAE J2570, SAE J2945, ISO 17024, and ISO 14819.
The Singapore Standards Council intends to continue the development TR 68 with on-going feedback from industry and as the technology matures. This would expand the scope, details and maturity of the TR to cover other aspects of AV development and deployment. See the joint media release + The levels of driving automation are defined in SAE J3016, along with a general taxonomy and definitions for automated driving which are commonly adopted by the automotive industry. In brief, for Level 4 the system is capable of driving in a limited domain without the involvement of a human, including taking care of the fallback condition where a system failure or limit is reached. Level 5 extends this to include no limit to the domain. More details at the SAE J3016 webpage +  The Manufacturing Standards Committee (MSC) is one of the Standards Committees of the Singapore Standards Council set up by Enterprise Singapore, the national standards body. See more at the SMF-SDO website +